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By John Miller

From Lewis Carroll’s poem “The Walrus and the chippie” to the Beatles’s “I am the Walrus,” walruses have performed an enigmatic position in pop culture. With their fashionable tusks and distinct whiskers, those odd-looking yet charismatic animals have lengthy held a vital position within the lives and folklore of Arctic indigenous cultures, either as an important meals resource and as part of conventional oral literature. in spite of the fact that, advertisement exchange of walrus items has prompted the creatures to be hunted to the threshold of extinction, with disastrous results on human populations within the Arctic.
Combining usual, cultural, and environmental history, Walrus explores the fascinating tale of an animal that at the present time is at the entrance traces of conservation debates. John Miller and Louise Miller describe the issues dealing with walruses even after the twentieth-century bans on nonindigenous walrus hunting—shrinking pack-ice brought on by international warming and the exploitation of Arctic oil and gasoline assets are destroying the animal’s habitat. splendidly illustrated with photographs of walruses within the wild and from artwork and well known culture, Walrus offers a fresh account of those large-flippered mammals whereas additionally illustrating the moral dilemmas they include, from the intensifying clash among the built international and indigenous pursuits to the influence of world warming on arctic animals.

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18  Richard Hough, Captain James prepare dinner: A Biography (London, 1994), p. 395. 19  See James A. Fall and Molly B. Chythlook, ‘The around Island Walrus Hunt: Reviving a Cultural Tradition’, Cultural Survival, XXII/3 (Fall 2008), at www. culturalsurvival. org. 20  Freuchen, Arctic experience, p. 154. 21  For a first-hand account of a standard Inuit walrus hunt, see Jean Malaurie, The final Kings of Thule, trans. Adrienne Foulke (Chicago, IL, 1982), pp. 62–71. 22  Hall, Arctic Researches, p. 500. 23  The walrus penis is living in an stomach sheath extending alongside the animal’s stomach, potentially making it liable to breakage whilst bumping over asymmetric ice. 24  Edward W. Nelson, The Eskimo approximately Bering Strait (Washington, DC, 1900), p. 166. 25  Fridtjof Nansen, Eskimo lifestyles, trans. William Archer (New York, 1893), p. seventy five. 26  Boas, ‘The Eskimo of Baffin and Hudson Bay’, Bulletin of the yankee Museum of usual heritage (New York), XV (1901), p. 116. 27  Knud Rasmussen, the folk of the Polar North: A list, trans. and ed. G. Herring (London, 1908), p. 143. 28  Boas, ‘The Eskimo’, p. 123. 29  Ibid. , p. 123. 30  Frédéric B. Laugrand and Jarich G. Oosten, Inuit Shamanism and Christianity: Transitions and alterations within the 20th Century (Montreal, 2010), p. 206. 31  John Moss, ed. , Echoing Silence: Essays on Arctic Narrative (Ottawa, 1997), p. 230. 32  Knud Rasmussen, highbrow tradition of the Iglulik Eskimos (Copenhagen, 1929), pp. 118–19. 33  Ibid. , p. 113. 34  Henry Rink, stories and Traditions of the Eskimo (Edinburgh, 1875), p. fifty nine. 35  Stefan Donecker, ‘The Lion, the Witch and the Walrus: photos of the Sorcerous North within the sixteenth and seventeenth Centuries’, in TRANS. Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, 17 (2010). 36  See Walter J. Hoffman, The picture artwork of the Eskimos (Washington, 1897). 37  Lars Krutak, ‘Tattoos of the Early Hunter-gatherers of the Arctic’ (2000), at www. larskrutak. com, accessed 21 January 2013. 38  Basil Dmytryshyn, E. A. P. Crownhart-Vaughan and Thomas Vaughan, ed. and trans. , Russia’s Conquest of Siberia: A Documentary list (Oregon, 1985), p. 229. 39  Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian, vol. XX: The Alaskan Eskimo. The Nunivak. The Eskimo of Hooper Bay. The Eskimo of King Island. The Eskimo of Little Diomede Island. The Eskimo of Cape Prince of Wales. The Kotzebue Eskimo. The Noatak. The Kobuk. The Selawik (Norwood, MA, 1930), p. seventy four. 40  Roger Silook, in William W. Fitzhugh, Julia Hollowell and Aron L. Crowell, eds, presents from the Ancestors: historical Ivories of Bering Strait (Princeton, NJ, 2009), p. 217. 41  Neil Christopher, Neil McDermott and Louise Flaherty, Unikkaaqtuat: An creation to standard Inuit Myths and Legends (Toronto, 2011), p. one hundred sixty. 42  Freuchen, Arctic event, p. 137. three THE warfare at the WALRUS 1  ‘Ohthere’s Voyage’, in King Alfred’s Anglo-Saxon model of the Compendious background of the realm through Orosius, ed. and trans. Joseph Bosworth (London, 1859), pp. 41–2. 2  The walrus isn't any longer came upon off the Norwegian coast, even though it is feasible that walruses have been as soon as present in quantity round Scandinavia yet have been hunted to extinction in those waters ahead of Ohthere’s time.

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